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Hellenic Armed Forces: Army

Leopard 1 Main Battle Tanks following live fire exercise with Army Aviation AH-64 Apaches.

The Hellenic Army


Leopard 1 V/GR/A5

The Hellenic Army has acquired both new and used Leopard 1's in the past. Most of these armored assets will soon undergo a major upgrade program that includes STN Atlas Electornic's MOLF targeting system. The program is intended to allow these tanks the ability to counter more technologically advanced opponents on the battlefield, and to supplement the new tanks that the Army is acquiring. 

Armament  : 1 x 105 mm L7 A3 Reinmetall, 
1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial),
1 x 7.62 mm MG (anti-aircraft)
Ammunition  : 55 x 105 mm, 
8,250 x 7.62 mm
Length Gun Forward : 9.54 m
Length Hull : 7.09 m
Width : 3.41 m
Height : 2.39 m
Power/Weight : 19.8 hp/t
Weight : 42.4 t
Engine : MTU MB 838 Ca M500, 10-cylinder water-cooled diesel, producing 830 hp at 2,200 rpm.
Transmission : ZF 4 HP 250 automatic, 4 gears forward and 2 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 65 km/h
Maximum Range : 550 km
Vertical Obstacle : 1.15 m
Trench : 3 m


The M-60 family of tanks has a fairly brief history with the Hellenic Army. Numerous units entered service following their withdrawal from the armed forces of NATO member states, due to the restraints placed by the CFE treaty. Because of the increasing number of new tanks and used Leopard 1's entering service, many of these tanks will again face demolition since Hellas too has to abide by the CFE limit restricting the total number of armored units in service. 

Armament  : 1 x 105 mm M68 L7A3, 
1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial),
1 x 12.7 mm MG (anti-aircraft)
Ammunition  : 63 x 105 mm, 
6,000 x 7.62 mm, 
1,000 x 12.7 mm
Length Gun Forward : 9.44 m
Length Hull : 6.95 m
Width : 3.63 m
Height : 2.65 m
Power/Weight : 14.5 hp/t
Weight : 51.5 t
Engine : Continental AVDS-1790-2A, 12-cylinder air-cooled diesel, producing 750 hp at 2,400 rpm.
Transmission : General Motors, 2 gears forward and 1 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 48 km/h
Maximum Range : 500 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.91 m
Trench : 2.59 m

M-48 A5/A5 MOLF

While numerous versions of the M-48 have served for many years in the Hellenic Army, today only the A5 and its MOLF upgraded version remain. As newer assets are acquired, the A5's in addition to the M-60 A1's will be withdrawn.

Armament  : 1 x 105 mm M68 L7, 
1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial),
1 x 12.7 mm MG (anti-aircraft)
1 x 7.62 mm MG (loader)
Ammunition  : 54 x 105 mm, 
8,000 x 7.62 mm, 
1,000 x 12.7 mm
Length Gun Forward : 8.69 m
Length Hull : 6.88 m
Width : 3.63 m
Height : 2.80 m
Power/Weight : 15.5 hp/t
Weight : 49 t
Engine : Continental AVDS-1790-2A, 12-cylinder air-cooled diesel, producing 750 hp at 2,400 rpm.
Transmission : Automatic, 2 gears forward and 1 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 48 km/h
Maximum Range : 463 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.92 m
Trench : 2.5 m



The AMX-30 is currently in reserve, as additional units are planned to be sold to Cyprus. Prior to entering service with the National Guard on the island, they undergo some modifications to bring them to the more advanced B2 level. The AMX-30 is French-built and was acquired by the 1967-1974 military administration that governed the country, so as to reduce dependence on the USA.

Armament  : 1 x 105 mm Mle F2, 
1 x 20 mm cannon (coaxial),
1 x 7.62 mm MG (anti-aircraft)
Ammunition  : 47 x 105 mm, 
1,050 x 20 mm,
2,050 x 7.62 mm
Length Gun Forward : 9.48 m
Length Hull : 6.59 m
Width : 3.10 m
Height : 2.29 m
Power/Weight : 20 hp/t
Weight : 36 t
Engine : Hispano-Suiza HS 110, 12-cylinder water-cooled diesel, producing 720 hp at 2,000 rpm.
Transmission : Mechanical, 5 gears in both directions.
Maximum Speed : 65 km/h
Maximum Range : 500 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.93 m
Trench : 2.9 m

Armored Personnel Carriers

Leonidas II

The Leonidas APC is based on the Steyer Daimler Puch model 4K7FA, and was built domestically by Steyer Ellas (now ELVO) starting in 1982. Additional units were also sold to the National Guard of Cyprus.

Armament  : 1 x 12.7 mm MG
Ammunition  : 1,500 x 12.7 mm
Length Hull : 5.87 m
Width : 2.50 m
Height : 1.69 m
Weight : 14.8 t
Soldiers : 2 + 8
Power/Weight : 21.6 hp/t
Engine : STEYR 7FA, inline 6-cylinder water-cooled diesel, producing 320 hp at 2,300 rpm.
Transmission : ZF Synchronized, 6 gears forward and 1 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 63.6 km/h
Maximum Range : 520 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.8 m
Trench : 2.1 m

M-113 A1/A2/TOW, M-901 A1 ITV, M-106 A1/A2, M-125 A1, M-577 A2

Since their initial introduction in 1960, M113-based systems have been modified into more than 40 identified specific variants. All vehicles in the Hellenic Army have been upgraded to or acquired with at least the A1 modifications that include a diesel engine. The M-113 APC is armed with a single .50 caliber machine gun (M2), or in some cases with a classic TOW launcher.

The M-901 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle), introduced a launcher platform that allowed the loading and launching of the missiles while the crew was protected inside the vehicle. The system is capable of firing two missiles without reloading and carries ten TOW rounds in the missile rack.

Fitted with a 4.2-inch mortar (M-30 107 mm) on a rotating turntable mounted in the rear compartment, the M-106 provides quick and highly mobile firepower. The mortar can be dismounted and used externally from the vehicle and the base plate and tripod are often carried on the outside of the vehicle when not in use. A total of 88 rounds can be carried.

The 81mm mortar (M-29) on the M-125 can be traversed through 360 degrees and fired from within the vehicle. Using a base plate and tripod, the mortar can also be used from outside of the vehicle. The vehicle carries 114 rounds of 81mm ammunition.

The M-577 has a raised rear compartment to allow personnel to stand upright in the vehicle. This variant is employed as a Command Post, Communications Vehicle and Artillery FDC with the MLRS and M-109 units.

Armament  : 1 x 12.7 mm MG
Ammunition  : 1,500 x 12.7 mm 
Length Hull : 4.46 m
Width : 2.69 m
Height : 2.20 m
Weight : 10.9 t
Soldiers : 2 + 9
Engine : 6-cylinder turbo diesel
Maximum Speed : 64 km/h
Maximum Range : 380 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.6 m
Trench : 1.7 m


The BMP-1 (Boevaya Mashina Pekhota) was developed in the late 1960s as a replacement for the BTR-50P. This Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle comes from the former East German army, and entered Hellenic Army service following the CFE treaty.

Armament  : 1 x 73 mm (2A28)
1 x 7.62 mm MG (coaxial)
Ammunition  : 40 x 73 mm
2,000 x 7.62 mm
Length Hull : 6.74 m
Width : 2.94 m
Height : 2.15 m
Weight : 13.5 t
Soldiers : 3 + 8
Power/Weight : 22.2 hp/t
Engine : UTD-20, inline 6-cylinder water-cooled diesel, producing 300 hp at 2,000 rpm.
Transmission : Manual, 5 gears forward and 1 reverse.
Maximum Speed : 80 km/h
Maximum Range : 500 km
Vertical Obstacle : 0.8 m
Trench : 2.2 m

Multiple Rocket Launchers


The Multiple Launch Rocket System is a high mobility automatic system based on an M270 weapons platform. MLRS fires surface-to-surface rockets and the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS). Without leaving the cab the crew of three (driver, gunner and section chief) can fire up to twelve MLRS rockets in less than 60 seconds. Depending on the rocket type used, the 12 x 227 mm carried can travel a distance of 32-70 km. The ATACMS missile has a maximum range of 140 km.


The RM-70 122 mm rocket launcher is an artillery reactive forty-barrel recoilless weapon with a lightly armored crew cabin on a T-813 chassis. Its four man crew can fire the rockets both in volleys and in single rounds, and their range exceeds 20 km.

Self-Propelled Artillery

M-110 A2

The self-propelled M-110 203 mm howitzer first entered service with the US Army in 1963. The vehicle itself transports only two projectiles and five men, while the remainder of the ammunition and the crew is on board a tracked M548. Depending on the shells used, it can fire projectiles 21-29 km away. The M-110 weights 26.5 t, has a top speed of 56 km/h, and a 725 km autonomy.

M-109 A1/A2/A3G/A5

Entering production in 1969, the self-propelled M-109 155 mm howitzer soon became the mainstay in NATO arsenals. The 28 projectiles it carries can be shot at distances that exceed 14 km. The hull and the turret are made out of wrought aluminum, as this vehicle weights 23.8 t. The M-109 has a crew of 6, a maximum speed of 56 km/h, and can go un-refueled for 390 km.

Towed Artillery

Model 56 Pack

The Model 56 105 mm Italian-made howitzer, is used by the Marines and air-mobile Army units because of its light weight, small dimensions, and quick disassembly. It has a range of just over 10 km, weights 1.4 t, can fire at a maximum rate of 8 projectiles per minute or 3-4 on a sustained rate, and is serviced by a crew of 7.

All Terrain Vehicles

VBL Panhard

The Panhard VBL was acquired after the need for armored reconnaissance vehicles was identified by the Hellenic Army's involvement in peacekeeping operations. The vehicle's Peugeot XD3T turbocharged diesel engine allows it to reach a top speed of 95 km/h. A variety of weapon systems can be added to the vehicle.

AM General M1025A2, M1097A2 HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle)

The AM General Corporation's Hummer or HUMVEE is in use by the forces of the Hellenic Army since October 2000. The M1025A version allows the mounting of Milan AT missiles, while the M1097A is mounted with a 12.7mm machine gun or two 7.62mm. A version of this vehicle will also carry the ASRAD anti-aircraft system by STN-Atlas. The vehicle's is powered by a 6.5L V8 diesel engine that generates 160HP and allows it to reach a top speed of 113 km/h.

ELBO-Mercedes 3/4 ton 240 GD

The Mercedes Benz G-type is the preferred 4x4 of a number of NATO armies. The Hellenic Army is equipped with the ELVO-built 4cylinder 2.4-liter diesel engine version, that produces 72 hp at 4,400 rpm. The vehicle can reach speeds of up to 115 km, has a tank capacity of 75 l, and has a fuel consumption rate of about 12.4 l / 100 km. Most vehicles are of the cabrio version, and carry a variety of weapons or communication equipment.

ELBO-Mercedes 1 1/4 ton 250 GD

The need for a transport vehicle in the 1 1/4 ton category lead to the acquisition by the Hellenic Army of the ELVO-Mercedes Benz 250 GD. The vehicle is equipped with a 4cylinder 2.9-liter diesel engine that produces 98 hp at 4,000 rpm. The 250 GD is able to carry loads of up to 1.2 tons, reach a top speed of 103 km/h, and has an un-refueled range of 600 km.

Anti-Aircraft Systems

MIM-23B Improved HAWK

Raytheon's HAWK (Homing All the Way Killer) surface to air missile system provides medium-range, low to medium altitude air defense against a variety of targets, including jet and rotary wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cruise missiles. It is carried on a three-missile towed launcher. The missile has a 120 lbs (54.4 kg) warhead, achieves a speed of 2.5 Mach, and has a range of 25 miles (40 km).

TOR-M1 (SA-15 Gauntlet)

The short range surface to air missile system 9M330 TOR is built in Russia by Antey since 1991. The missile has a 15 kg warhead and a range of 12 km. It was acquired by the Hellenic Army to provide protection for its large mobile formations.

OSA-AK/AKM (SA-8 Gecko)

With units entering service both from East German and Russian sources, the 9M33 Osa short range surface to air missile system was acquired to maximize the protection offered to Army units. First deployed in 1973, this missile system was able to carry its 19 kg warhead to targets up to 15 km away.

Artemis 30

The Artemis 30 was developed during the 1980's in Hellas, to protect all branches of the Armed Forces from medium and low level attack aircraft. The system is based around the 30 mm cannon and it's advanced targeting system. It can fire at a rate of 800 rounds per minute for each cannon, at maximum range of 8,400 m or a tactical range of 3,300 m. Plans call for this system's integration with some advanced missile system.


The Soviet Union introduced the 23 mm ZU-23 lightweight, automatic, towed antiaircraft gun in 1964. It features twin 23mm air-cooled ZAP 23 cannons that traverse 360 degrees, has a weight of 950 kg, has a range of 2.5 km, and is serviced by a crew of 5. This system entered the Hellenic Army arsenal after years of service with the East German army. 


With twin 20 mm guns, the German-made Rheinmetall 202 provides air defense against low flying aircraft. It has a rate of fire of 2,000 rounds per minute, with a maximum range of 7,000 m or a tactical range of 1,800 m, weights 2.2 t, and is serviced by a crew of 4. It is used to protect military formations and strategic assets.

Special Forces


Δυνάμεις Καταδρομών (Dynamis Katadromon - Commandos): In 1965 the 1st Tactical Commando Command was formed, which was renamed in 1967 as the 1st Commando Regiment.

Αμφίβιοι Καταδρομείς (Amphibie Katadromis - Amphibious Commandos): Due to the demands imposed in the Eastern Aegean Sea, the 13th Amphibious Commando Regiment was created. Their primary mission is to disrupt a possible Turkish invasion.

Δυνάμεις Αλεξιπτωτιστών (Dynamis Alexiptotiston - Parachute/Airborne Forces): In 1955 Hellas established a parachuting school that trained members of the special forces. In April of 1965 the 2nd Tactical Commando Command was formed, which was renamed in October 1967 as the 2nd Parachute Regiment.

E.T.A. (Ειδικό Τμήμα Αλεξιπτωτιστών - Idiko Tmima Alexiptotiston - Special Parachute/Airborne Unit) : The most elite special forces group in Hellas, it has a very unorthodox training program and organization. This unit of the Army is composed of career officers and NCO's that follow extensive programs in Hellas (MYK, KEAP) and other NATO countries (ILRRP).

Δυνάμεις Πεζοναυτών (Dynamis Pezonauton - Marines): In 1967 the 32nd Infantry Regiment was renamed as the 32nd Marine Regiment, and organized along the lines of the US Marine Corps. In 1974 this force was reorganized into the 32nd Marine Brigade.

Μονάδα Υποβρύχιων Καταστροφών (Monada Ypobrihion Katastrofon - Underwater Demolition Unit): The Hellenic Navy recognized the need for its own specialized forces, and early on in 1957 developed a scuba diving school. This unit received its current name in 1967, and its training and mission resembles the unorthodox warfare of the US Navy SEAL teams. 

Army Aviation

AH-64A+ Apache

The McDonald Douglas (now Boeing) AH-64A+ Apache is the most advanced attack helicopter in the world. This combat helicopter is capable of routine operations in daytime or darkness and nearly all bad weather. The Apache uses laser, infrared and other high technology systems - like the Target Acquisition Designation Sight/Pilot Night Vision Sensor - to find, track and attack armored and other targets. It can be armed with 16 laser-guided precision Hellfire missiles, 76 70 mm rockets, or a combination of both, and a 30 mm automatic cannon with up to 1,200 rounds of high explosive, dual purpose ammunition. The aircraft is capable of flight above 4,000 m and maximum speed of 280 km.

CH-47 DG Chinook

Designed and built by Vertol (now Boeing), as well as Agusta of Italy, this helicopter first flew on September 21, 1961. It is able to lift more than 7 tons or provide accomodations for 3 crewmembers, 50 troops or 24 litter patients and attendants. Supporting the needs of the highly mobile forces of the Hellenic Army, it is capable of flight at speeds of 315 km/h and for a range of about 1100 km.

UH-1 H Huey

The Huey has had a long history of combat-proven service performance. All aicraft of this type have undergone an upgrade program prior to entering service. The helicopter is able to fly at a speed of 241 km/h, with a range of 673 km.

Agusta Bell AB-205 A/A1

The AB-205 medium lift helicopter is capable of carrying 1,759 kg or 11-14 troops. It has a top speed of 222 km/h, a service ceiling of 4,575 m, and a range of 580 km. The Army is looking to replace these helicopters in the immediate future.

Agusta Bell AB-212

The Army AB-212 helicopter is used for VIP transportation requirements. Its maximum speed is 185 km/h and its range is 415 km.

Agusta Bell AB-206B Jet Ranger

This small helicopter is used by the Army Aviation for observation purposes. It is able to fly at a maximum speed of 213 km/h for a range of 676 km.


The BredaNardi/Schweizer NH-300C helicopters are used to train the new pilots of the Army Aviation. It has a top speed of 140 km/h and a range of about 415 km.

C-12 A/ R/AP Huron

With the inital Beechcraft C-12A models used for VIP purposes, additional R models are being acquired for reconnaissance duties. This aircraft has a maximum speed of 481 km/h, and range of some 2,000 km.

U-17 A/B Skywagon

Built by Cessna as the military version of the 180 Skywagon, this aircraft is used for reconnaissance by the Army. The plane has a maximum speed of 204 km/h and a range of about 1,100 km.


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