The Lausanne Treaty
The Contracting Powers undertake to put no hindrance in the way
of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have under the present Treaty, or
under the Treaties of Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, or under
and Treaty concluded by the said Powers, other than Turkey, or any of them, with Russia,
or between themselves, to choose any other nationality which may be open the them.
For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status
of married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the status of children under
eighteen years of age by that of their parents.
PROTECTION OF MINORITIES
Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 38
to 44 shall be recognized as fundamental laws, and that no law, no regulation, nor
official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law,
regulation, nor official action prevail over them.
The Turkish Government undertakes to assure full and complete protection
of life and liberty to all inhabitants of Turkey without distinction of birth,
nationality, language, race or religion.
All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to free exercise,
whether in public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, the observance of
which shall not be incompatible with public order and good morals.
Non-Moslem minorities will enjoy full freedom of movement and
of emigration. Subject to the measures applied, on the whole or on part of the territory,
to all Turkish nationals, and which may be taken by the Turkish Government for national
defense, or for the maintenance of public order.
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities will
enjoy the same civil political rights as Moslems.
All the inhabitants of Turkey, without distinction of religion,
shall be equal before the law.
Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any
Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or political rights,
as, for instance, admission to public employments, functions and honors, or the exercise
of professions and industries.
No restrictions shall be imposed on the free use by any
Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the
press, or in publications of any kind or at public meetings.
Notwithstanding the existence of the official language, adequate
facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech for the oral of their
own language before the Courts.
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall
enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in fact as other Turkish
nationals. In particular, they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and
control at their own expense, any charitable, religious and social institutions, any
schools and other establishments for instruction and education, with the right to use
their own language and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
As regards public instruction, the Turkish Government will grant in
those towns and districts, where a considerable proportion of non-Moslem nationals are
resident, adequate facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the
instruction shall be given to the children of such Turkish nationals through the medium of
their own language. This provision will not prevent the Turkish Government from
making the teaching of the Turkish language obligatory in the said schools.
In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities, these minorities shall be assured an
equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out of
public junks under the State, municipal or other budgets for educational, religious, or
The sums in question shall be paid to the qualifies representatives
of the establishments and institutions concerned.
The Turkish Government undertakes to take, as regards non-Moslem
minorities, in so far as concerns their family law or personal status, measures permitting
the settlement of these questions in accordance with the customs of those minorities.
These measures will be elaborated by special Commissions composed of
representatives of the Turkish Government and of representatives of each of the minorities
concerned in equal number. In case of divergence, the Turkish Government and the Council
of the League of Nations will appoint in agreement an umpire chosen from amongst European
The Turkish Government undertakes to grant full protection
to the churches, synagogues, cemeteries, and other religious establishments of the
above-mentioned minorities. All facilities and authorization will be granted to the
pious foundations, and to the religious and charitable institutions of the said minorities
at present existing in Turkey, and the Turkish Government will not refuse, for the
formation of new religious and charitable institutions, any of the necessary
facilities which are granted to other private institutions of that nature.
Turkish nationals belonging to non-Moslem minorities shall not be
compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of their faith or religions
observances, and shall not be placed under any disability by reason of their regal to
attend Courts of Law or to perform any legal business on their weekly day of rest.
This provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals
from such obligations as hall be imposed upon all other Turkish nationals for the
preservation of public order.
Turkey that, in so far as the preceding Articles of this Section
affect non-Moslem nationals of Turkey, these provisions constitute obligations of
international concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations.
They shall not be modified without the assent of the majority of the Council of the League
of Nations. The British Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby agree not to without their
assent to any modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a
majority of the Council of the League of Nations.
Turkey agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of
Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council and infraction or
danger of infraction of any of these obligations, and that the Council thereupon take such
action and give such directions as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances.
Turkey further agrees that any difference of opinion as to questions
of law or of fact arising out of these Articles between the Turkish Government and any one
of the other Signatory Powers or any other Power, a member of the Council of the League of
Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character under Article 14 of
the Government of the League of Nations, The Turkish Government hereby consents that any
such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, he referred to the Permanent Court
of International justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall
have the same force and effect as an award under Article 19 of the Covenant.
The rights conferred by the provisions of the present Section on the
non-Moslem minorities of Turkey will be similarly conferred by Greece on the Moslem
minority in her territory.
OTTOMAN PUBLIC DEBT.
The Ottoman Public Debt, as detained in the Table annexed to the
present Section, shall be distributed under the conditions laid down in the present
Section between Turkey, the States in favor of which territory has been detached from the
Ottoman Empire after the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the States to which the islands referred
to in Articles 12 and 15 of the present Treaty and the territory referred to in the last
paragraph of the present Article have been attributed, and the Status newly created
territories in Asia which are detached from the Ottoman Empire under the present Treaty.
All the above States shall also participate, under the conditions laid down in the present
Section, in the annual charges for the service of the Ottoman Public Debt from the dates
referred to in Article 53.
From the dates laid down in Article 53, Turkey shall not be held in
any way whatsoever responsible for the shares of the Debt for which others States are
For the purpose of the distribution of the Ottoman Public Debt, that
portion of the territory of Thrace which was under Turkish sovereignty on the 1st August,
1914, and lies outside the boundaries of Turkey as laid down by Article 2 of the present
Treaty, shall be denied to be detached from the Ottoman Empire under the said Treaty.
The Council of the Ottoman Public shall, within three months from
the coming into force of the present Treaty, determine, on the basis laid down by Articles
50 and 51. the amounts of the annuities for the loans referred to in Part A of the Table
annexed to the present Section which are payable by each of the States concerned, and
shall notify to them this amount.
These States shall be granted an opportunity to send to Constantinople
delegates to check the calculations made for this purpose by the Council to check
calculations made for this purpose by the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt.
The Council of the Debt shall exercise the functions referred to in
Article 134 of the Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria of the 27th November, 1919.